Jordan, Chron"The first bluebonnets of arrive, just in time," 25 Jan. Send us feedback. See More First Known Use of germinatein the meaning defined at transitive sense History and Etymology for germinate Latin germinatuspast participle of germinare to sprout, from germin- germen bud, germ Keep scrolling for more Learn More about germinate Share germinate Post the Definition of germinate to Facebook Share the Definition of germinate on Twitter Time Traveler for germinate.

See more words from the same year Dictionary Entries near germinate germinal membrane germinal vesicle germinant germinate germinative vesicle germinator germing. Accessed 11 Feb. Keep scrolling for more More Definitions for germinate germinate.

Please tell us where you read or heard it including the quote, if possible. Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Get to know them. We're intent on clearing it up 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'? We're gonna stop you right there Literally How to use a word that literally drives some pe Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice?

A new year of words of the day quizzes! Test your visual vocabulary with our question Login or Register. Save Word. Definition of germinate. Keep scrolling for more. Examples of germinate in a Sentence methods used by gardeners to germinate seeds. First Known Use of germinatein the meaning defined at transitive sense.

History and Etymology for germinate Latin germinatuspast participle of germinare to sprout, from germin- germen bud, germ. Learn More about germinate. Time Traveler for germinate The first known use of germinate was in See more words from the same year. Dictionary Entries near germinate germinal membrane germinal vesicle germinant germinate germinative vesicle germinator germing See More Nearby Entries.

More Definitions for germinate. English Language Learners Definition of germinate. Kids Definition of germinate. Comments on germinate What made you want to look up germinate? Get Word of the Day daily email! Test Your Vocabulary. Test your visual vocabulary with our question challenge!

Anagram puzzles meet word search. Love words?To come into existence: An idea germinated in his mind. All rights reserved. The beginning of growth, as of a seed, spore, or bud.


The germination of most seeds and spores occurs in response to warmth and water. Switch to new thesaurus. Based on WordNet 3. Mentioned in? References in classic literature? But I do not doubt that plants exposed to the waves would float for a less time than those protected from violent movement as in our experiments.

But the following fact is more important: the crops of birds do not secrete gastric juice, and do not in the least injure, as I know by trial, the germination of seeds; now after a bird has found and devoured a large supply of food, it is positively asserted that all the grains do not pass into the gizzard for 12 or even 18 hours.

View in context. A particularly fine spring came round, and the stir of germination was almost audible in the buds; it moved her, as it moved the wild animals, and made her passionate to go. These were of a character to force into germination whatever seeds of hereditary superstition lay latent in my bosom.

I drop it into your brains and await its germination. Is it illuminative? Is it not that the soul puts forth friends as the tree puts forth leaves, and presently, by the germination of new buds, extrudes the old leaf? We were put into our bodies, as fire is put into a pan to be carried about; but there is no accurate adjustment between the spirit and the organ, much less is the latter the germination of the former. Seed germination and seedling growth are two critical stages for the establishment of crops and are the most sensitive stages to salinity FULLER et al.

Keywords: Carthamus tinctorius L. On the other hand, the germination delay allows the peripheral one to increase its temporal spread. Germination constraints of dicarpic cypselae of Bidenspilosa L. Fur-free cotton seed be sown on ridges at the rate of 4.

FAC fortnightly cotton advisory advocates soil analysis before sowing. Dictionary browser? Full browser?Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.

The term is applied to the sprouting of a seedling from a seed of an angiosperm or gymnospermthe growth of a sporeling from a sporesuch as the spores of fungiferns, bacteriaand the growth of the pollen tube from the pollen grain of a seed plant. Germination is usually the growth of a plant contained within a seed; it results in the formation of the seedling. It is also the process of reactivation of metabolic machinery of the seed resulting in the emergence of radicle and plumule. The seed of a vascular plant is a small package produced in a fruit or cone after the union of male and female reproductive cells.

All fully developed seeds contain an embryo and, in most plant species some store of food reserves, wrapped in a seed coat. Some plants produce varying numbers of seeds that lack embryos; these are empty seeds which never germinate. Dormant seeds are viable seeds that do not germinate because they require specific internal or environmental stimuli to resume growth. Under proper conditions, the seed begins to germinate and the embryo resumes growth, developing into a seedling.

Disturbance of soil can result in vigorous plant growth by exposing seeds already in the soil to changes in environmental factors where germination may have previously been inhibited by depth of the seeds or soil that was too compact. This is often observed at grave sites after a burial. Seed germination depends on both internal and external conditions. The most important external factors include right temperaturewateroxygen or air and sometimes light or darkness.

Often this depends on the individual seed variety and is closely linked to the ecological conditions of a plant's natural habitat. For some seeds, their future germination response is affected by environmental conditions during seed formation; most often these responses are types of seed dormancy. Most common annual vegetables have optimal germination temperatures between F Cthough many species e.

Suboptimal temperatures lead to lower success rates and longer germination periods. Scarification mimics natural processes that weaken the seed coat before germination. In nature, some seeds require particular conditions to germinate, such as the heat of a fire e.

Others need to be passed through an animal's digestive tract to weaken the seed coat enough to allow the seedling to emerge. Seed dormancy can originate in different parts of the seed, for example, within the embryo; in other cases the seed coat is involved.

Dormancy breaking often involves changes in membranes, initiated by dormancy-breaking signals. This generally occurs only within hydrated seeds. In brewingbarley seeds are treated with gibberellin to ensure uniform seed germination for the production of barley malt. In some definitions, the appearance of the radicle marks the end of germination and the beginning of "establishment", a period that utilizes the food reserves stored in the seed.

Germination and establishment as an independent organism are critical phases in the life of a plant when they are the most vulnerable to injury, disease, and water stress.

The mortality between dispersal of seeds and completion of establishment can be so high that many species have adapted to produce large numbers of seeds. In agriculture and gardeningthe germination rate describes how many seeds of a particular plant speciesvariety or seedlot are likely to germinate over a given period. It is a measure of germination time course and is usually expressed as a percentage, e. Seed germination rate is determined by the seed genetic composition, morphological features and environmental factors.

For seed physiologists and seed scientists "germination rate" is the reciprocal of time taken for the process of germination to complete starting from time of sowing. On the other hand, the number of seed able to complete germination in a population i. Seed quality deteriorates with age, and this is associated with accumulation of genome damage.

The part of the plant that first emerges from the seed is the embryonic root, termed the radicle or primary root. It allows the seedling to become anchored in the ground and start absorbing water.Germinationthe sprouting of a seedsporeor other reproductive body, usually after a period of dormancy.

The absorption of waterthe passage of time, chilling, warming, oxygen availability, and light exposure may all operate in initiating the process. In the process of seed germination, water is absorbed by the embryowhich results in the rehydration and expansion of the cells. Shortly after the beginning of water uptake, or imbibition, the rate of respiration increases, and various metabolic processes, suspended or much reduced during dormancy, resume. These events are associated with structural changes in the organelles membranous bodies concerned with metabolismin the cells of the embryo.

Germination sometimes occurs early in the development process; the mangrove Rhizophora embryo develops within the ovule, pushing out a swollen rudimentary root through the still-attached flower. In peas and corn maize the cotyledons seed leaves remain underground e. Dormancy is brief for some seeds—for example, those of certain short-lived annual plants.

After dispersal and under appropriate environmental conditions, such as suitable temperature and access to water and oxygen, the seed germinates, and the embryo resumes growth. Commonly, the embryo has no innate dormancy and will develop after the seed coat is removed or sufficiently damaged to allow water to enter. Germination in such cases depends upon rotting or abrasion of the seed coat in the gut of an animal or in the soil.

Inhibitors of germination must be either leached away by water or the tissues containing them destroyed before germination can occur. Mechanical restriction of the growth of the embryo is common only in species that have thick, tough seed coats. Germination then depends upon weakening of the coat by abrasion or decomposition. In many seeds the embryo cannot germinate even under suitable conditions until a certain period of time has lapsed. The time may be required for continued embryonic development in the seed or for some necessary finishing process—known as afterripening —the nature of which remains obscure.

The seeds of many plants that endure cold winters will not germinate unless they experience a period of low temperature, usually somewhat above freezing. Otherwise, germination fails or is much delayed, with the early growth of the seedling often abnormal.

germination definition francais

This response of seeds to chilling has a parallel in the temperature control of dormancy in buds. In some species, germination is promoted by exposure to light of appropriate wavelengths. In others, light inhibits germination. The precise significance of this response is as yet unknown, but it may be a means of adjusting germination time to the season of the year or of detecting the depth of the seed in the soil.

Light sensitivity and temperature requirements often interact, the light requirement being entirely lost at certain temperatures. Active growth in the embryo, other than swelling resulting from imbibition, usually begins with the emergence of the primary rootknown as the radicle, from the seed, although in some species e.

Early growth is dependent mainly upon cell expansion, but within a short time cell division begins in the radicle and young shoot, and thereafter growth and further organ formation organogenesis are based upon the usual combination of increase in cell number and enlargement of individual cells.

Until it becomes nutritionally self-supporting, the seedling depends upon reserves provided by the parent sporophyte. In angiosperms these reserves are found in the endospermin residual tissues of the ovuleor in the body of the embryo, usually in the cotyledons.

In gymnosperms food materials are contained mainly in the female gametophyte. Since reserve materials are partly in insoluble form—as starch grains, protein granules, lipid droplets, and the like—much of the early metabolism of the seedling is concerned with mobilizing these materials and delivering, or translocating, the products to active areas.

Reserves outside the embryo are digested by enzymes secreted by the embryo and, in some instances, also by special cells of the endosperm. In some seeds e. When the reserves are stored in the cotyledons themselves, these organs may shrink after germination and die or develop chlorophyll and become photosynthetic.Add germination to one of your lists below, or create a new one. Blood is thicker than water. Definitions Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English.

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germination definition francais

Tell us about this example sentence:. The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. The sentence contains offensive content. Cancel Submit. Your feedback will be reviewed. Good soil moisture is required for seed germination. The cold and frost of winter weather helps to stimulate germination. See germinate. When germination occursthe covering should be removed at once. Germination is slow and can take a month in cold soil. The chemical kills weeds and prevents seed germination.If the plant occurs along the water, the seeds, when liberated, float about until they rest in a suitable place for germination.

They are conceived of fecund nods and looks, of the germination of writing and initials and signatures and contract-stamps. The finer the soil is the surer you may be of the germination of the seed you put into it.

Every five or six days the watering is to be renewed, in order to facilitate the germination. Studies have been made upon the comparative germination of tree seeds in the field and the greenhouse.

See synonyms for germination on Thesaurus. The beginning of growth, as of a seed, spore, or bud. The germination of most seeds and spores occurs in response to warmth and water.


Let them take this teacher-created 9th grade practice test to see if their vocab makes the grade. A Closer Look Dormant seeds are very dry and require the absorption of water to initiate the metabolic processes of respiration and begin to digest their stored food. Respiration requires the presence of oxygen, which must be sufficiently available in the soil for germination to proceed, so the soil must be wet but not so waterlogged as to make oxygen inaccessible.

Temperatures must be above freezing zero degrees Celsius but not excessively hot not more than about 45 degrees Celsius.

germination definition francais

If conditions are right, a radicle an embryonic root emerges from the seed coat, anchoring the seed; it then grows and puts out lateral roots. In most eudicots, a part of the developing stem, either the epicotyl the stem above the cotyledons or the hypocotyl the stem below the cotyledons elongates, forming a hook and gradually pulling the seed coat and the delicate shoot tip above the soil surface. Germination of eudicot seeds is normally divided into two types, designated epigeous and hypogeous.

In epigeous germination, the cotyledons emerge above the soil surface, and wither and drop off after their food stores have been used up; in hypogeous germination, the cotyledons remain below the surface and decompose after their food stores have been used up. In most monocots, food is stored in the seed's endosperm rather than the cotyledonand it is the single tubular cotyledon that elongates and draws the seed coat out of the soil.

The cotyledon conducts photosynthesis, making more food, while the shoot grows up inside the tube. Words nearby germination germinal membranegerminal polegerminal vesiclegerminantgerminategerminationgerminativegerminative layergerminomaGermistongerm layer. All rights reserved. Words related to germination originfertilizationreplicationphotocopyreplicacarbon copyduplicationprosperitysuccessadvancehikeriseadvancementexpansionimprovementincreaseproductiongainsurgegravidness.

Example sentences from the Web for germination If the plant occurs along the water, the seeds, when liberated, float about until they rest in a suitable place for germination.

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germination definition francais

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